The relationship of executive functions with academic competency and social skills in adolescents with intellectual disability


1University of Sarajevo,
Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina
2Herzegovina University,
Mostar, Bosnia and Herzegovina
Received: 06-August-2020
Revised: 30-August-2020
Accepted: 05-September-2020
Online first: 06-September-2020


Introduction: Adolescence is characterised as a period of further development and maturation of higher executive functions (EF). It is well established that EF play an important role in social skills and academic competence of typically developing adolescents.

Purpose:The goal of this study was to examine the relationship between executive functions (EF) and academic competency and social skills in adolescents with a mild intellectual disability. In particular, we were interested to examine which EF have the greatest impact on social skills and academic competency.

Methods: EF were measured with the Behaviour Rating Inventory of Executive Functions (BRIEF), and social and academic competences were measured with the Social Skills Rating System (SSRS). The sample for this study consisted of 44 adolescents with mild intellectual disability aged 15-18 years old (mean age 16.7 years, SD- 1.4).

Results: The results of this study clearly pointed to the strong relationship between these constructs. Of all EF, planning had the strongest impact on academic success, and monitoring had the strongest impact on social skills.

Conclusion: EF are susceptible to training effects, we thus propose early interventions in these domains in order to increase the social and academic competence of persons with an intellectual disability.

Key words: executive functions, academic competency, social skills, adolescents, intellectual disability

Citation: Memisevic, H., Biscevic, I. The relationship of executive functions with academic competency and social skills in adolescents with intellectual disability. Journal for ReAttach Therapy and Developmental Diversities, 2020 Dec 25; 3(2): 12-21.

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Gender Differences in the Effects of Comprehensive Sexuality Education

Nikolina KENIG1,

1Institute of Psychology, Faculty of Philosophy,
Ss Cyril and Methodius University, Skopje, Macedonia
2International Planned Parenthood Federation,
European Network, Brussels, Belgium
Received: 27-March-2019
Revised: 02-May-2019
Accepted: 18-June-2019
Online first: 19-June-2019


Objectives: The model of comprehensive sexuality education (CSE) is intended to support young people in acquiring information and developing skills and attitudes that should improve their reproductive and sexual health. The objective of this research was to assess the effectiveness of the implemented model through the progress made by participating students. It was expected that they should improve both their knowledge and attitudes regarding sexuality.

Method: In study 1, the evaluation of the effectiveness of the program was conducted by comparing pre-test and post-test measures on assessment test and attitude scale for assessing acceptance of values underlying CSE. Participants were 154 adolescents (113 female and 41 male) who attended CSE workshops. Study 2 was based on thematic analysis of qualitative data from 24 participants who provided insights in their perceptions of the CSE training.

Results: Findings show that progress has been made regarding all components that define the program. The two-way ANOVA analysis of post-test results for the acquired knowledge revealed an interaction between participants’ gender and regularity of attendance (Fsex*att(1,152)=6.72, p<0.05) accompanied by the main effect of their sex (Fsex (1,152)=9.10, p<0.01). The exploration of qualitative data suggested that, while boys see the information on protecting sexual and reproductive health useful, the other themes (gender equality and sexual diversity) make them uneasy.

Conclusions: It is concluded that the model needs to be improved in terms of making it more attractive for boys, who experience difficulties in accepting the discourse that is intended to emancipate them from rigid adherence to heteronormativity.

Key words: Comprehensive sexuality education, Gender-binary, Adolescents


Citation: Kenig, N., Kostovski, D. Gender Differences in the Effects of Comprehensive Sexuality Education. Journal for ReAttach Therapy and Developmental Diversities.

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