British vs. American English: Spelling Differences in Academic Writing

Dear readers,

In Journal for ReAttach Therapy and Developmental Diversities we are using British English. So please adopt your articles to British English. Here are some spelling differences.

There are two main forms of written English – British and American – and most scholarly journals will indicate a preference or requirement for one or the other in their instructions for authors. Even if the guidelines of the journal to which you are hoping to submit your academic or scientific article does not specify whether you should use British or American English, you will be expected to use one form or the other consistently, and your spelling choices will need to be appropriate in every relevant instance. Unfortunately, many authors are not aware of the exact nature of the variations between British and American English, and while setting the default language in Microsoft Word to either British or American can help you catch and correct some misspelled words, it is far from foolproof. Most good English dictionaries will note spelling variations, but some dictionaries do not indicate in all cases whether the variants provided are determined by the differences between the two forms of English. Creating correct British or American English can therefore be challenging, and the following spelling notes may prove helpful as you polish your writing for publication.

• British English often uses ‘our’ (colour, behaviour) where American English uses only ‘or’ (color, behavior).
• British English tends to use ‘re’ at the end of words such as ‘centre’ and ‘metre,’ whereas American English uses ‘er’ (center, meter), but this is not always the case, with ‘parameter’ and ‘sober,’ for instance, correct in both forms of the language.
• British English can use either ‘ise’ or ‘ize’ in verbs that are always spelled with ‘ize’ in American English, so ‘organize’ and ‘specialize’ are correct in American English and can also be correct in British English, but British English can instead use ‘organise’ and ‘specialise.’
• British English uses ‘yse,’ as in ‘analyse’ and ‘paralyse,’ whereas American English uses ‘yze’ (analyze, paralyze).
• British English tends to use ‘ae,’‘oe’ and ‘ou’ in situations where American English uses only ‘e’ or ‘o,’ so ‘aesthetics,’ ‘manoeuvre’ and ‘mould’ are correct in British English, but the spelling would be ‘esthetics,’ ‘maneuver’ and ‘mold’ in American English, though these differences are not always observed.
• In British English ‘defence’ is spelled with a ‘c,’ but in American English the word is spelled with an ‘s’ (defense). The decision to use ‘c’ or ‘s’ can be tricky, however, with British English spelling the nouns ‘practice’ and ‘licence’ differently than the verbs ‘practise’ and ‘license,’ whereas American English uses ‘practice’ for both the noun and the verb and, conversely, ‘license’ for both the noun and the verb.
• British English will often retain an ‘e’ where American English will not, so ‘sizeable’ and ‘acknowledgement’ in British English are ‘sizable’ and ‘acknowledgment’ in American English, but this is not necessarily predictable: ‘judgement,’ for instance, is used in British English, except in legal contexts, in which case the correct form is ‘judgment,’ which is always the correct form in American English, and ‘knowledgeable’ retains its ‘e’ in both forms of the language.
• British English tends to use a single ‘l,’ as in ‘enrol’ and ‘skilful,’ whereas Amercian English uses double ‘ll’ in the same words (enroll, skillful).
• British English often doubles consonants when endings are added to words, as is the case with ‘focussed’ and ‘travelling,’ while American English does not (focused, traveling), but there are exceptions, with ‘enrolling’ the correct form in both.
• British English occasionally uses ‘ph’ (sulphur) where American English uses ‘f’ (sulfur), ‘sc’ (sceptic) where American English uses ‘sk’ (skeptic), ‘que’ (cheque) where American English uses ‘ck’ (check) and ‘ogue’ (catalogue) where American English uses only ‘og’ (catalog), though the two forms of the language do not always differ in the last of these ways, with ‘epilogue,’ for instance, the same in both.
• In some cases British English uses ‘mme’ (programme) where American English uses an ‘m’ alone (program), but this varies, and when ‘program’ applies to computer software, ‘mme’ is never used.

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Our dedicated team of journal editors and proofreaders will give you more confidence in the work that you submit after benefiting from our journal proofreading and editing services. The author instructions provided by academic and scientific journals must be followed with precision when preparing a scholarly article for publication or the paper may be rejected without serious consideration of its content; the same problem can arise if an article written in the English language contains too may grammar, spelling and punctuation errors. Our academic and scientific journal editors and proofreaders can help you to ensure that this does not happen to your articles by resolving any problems with your language, adjusting your formatting and references to conform consistently to journal requirements and correcting simple typing errors. Learn more about ourjournal article proofreading and editing services for researchers across all academic and scientific journals.

Proof-Reading-Service.com provides wide-ranging proofreading and editing services for the authors of academic, scientific and professional documents. Our academic and scientific proofreaders and editors are highly educated in many different subject areas and carefully trained to work on documents of all kinds, so whatever sort of document you are writing, we have the experience and expertise to help you improve its grammar, spelling, punctuation, references and formatting until they are polished to perfection. Examples of the many kinds of academic and scientific documents we frequently proofread and edit are listed below, but if the sort of document you are currently writing is not mentioned here, please contact us, as we are sure to have an expert proofreader ready to assist you.

Source: https://www.proof-reading-service.com

JRTDD editor-in-chief

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How to write rejection letter for journal article (Example 2)

Dear colleague (name)
Expert reviewers in the field have evaluated your manuscript with ID 07218
(title article)
and I regret to inform you that, based on their comments, it will not be possible to further consider your manuscript for publication in Journal for ReAttach Therapy and Developmental Diversities.
Although the reviews are not entirely negative, it is evident from the extensive comments and concerns that the manuscript, at least in its current form, does not meet the criteria for novelty
and impact expected of papers in Journal for ReAttach Therapy and Developmental Diversities.
The results appear to be too preliminary and incomplete for publication at the present time.
The comments of the reviewers are enclosed for your consideration. I hope the information provided by the reviewers will be helpful in future studies.
The volume of manuscripts submitted to Journal for ReAttach Therapy and Developmental Diversities has been growing steadily, raising publication standards to new levels of selectivity. This policy, though not always convenient to potential contributors, will help ensure that Journal for ReAttach Therapy and Developmental Diversities maintains a position of leadership in the field.
Again, thank you for your interest in the journal, and I regret that the outcome could not have been more favorable in this case.
Sincerely,

JRTDD Editor-in-chief

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How to write rejection letter for journal article (Example 1)

Dear colleague (name),

We received your manuscript with ID 06118: (title of the article),
and I regret to inform you that, based on plagiarism iThenticate program yours article showed 58% similarity with other papers. Due to a possible plagiarism we will not be possible to further consider your manuscript for publication in Journal for ReAttach Therapy and Developmental Diversities. 

This policy, though not always convenient to potential contributors, will help ensure that Journal for ReAttach Therapy and Developmental Diversities maintains a position of leadership in the field.
Again, thank you for your interest in the journal, and I regret that the outcome could not have been more favorable in this case.
Sincerely, 
JRTDD Editor-in-chief

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#AUTISM: IS THERE A PLACE FOR REATTACH THERAPY? #Book Review

Joanna KOSSEWSKA
Department of Psychology
Pedagogical University of Crakow,
Crakow, Poland
E-mail: joanna.kossewska@up.krakow.pl
Received: 08-July-2018
Revised: 09-July-2018
Accepted: 09-July-2018
Online first 10-July-2018

 

Review of the book Autism: is there a place for ReAttach therapy? edited by Paula Weerkamp-Bartholomeus.
The book Autism: is there a place for ReAttach therapy? edited by Paula Weerkamp-Bartholomeus is new monograph in the field of psychotherapy and support for patients with mental health problems. The content of the book has contributions by international professionals working in the field of clinical psychology, psychiatry, immunology as well as genetics. It is organised into a preface and five separate chapters, which are briefly analysed below, presenting a differentiated but coherent perspective of the ReAttach approach proposal.
The Preface and Epilogue by Michael Fitzgerald are two sections that bind the contents together. The beginning entitled “Sentimus ergo sumus: we sense therefore we are. ReAttach”, points out the core assumptions of ReAttach which are as following: the ortho-paedagogical background, the integrated therapeutic perspective (sensory perception, emotion and cognition) and a dimensional rather than categorical approach. This means that separate psychiatric diagnoses is not so important, due to the fact that mental health problems are comorbid. The ending gives the readers the future perspective and sums up the ReAttach results.
The contents of the book might be divided into two sections. The first is strictly related to biological aspects of autism and the second is dedicated to the ReAttach treatment analysis.
Autism is the core topic of two chapters: Chapter 2 entitled “Oxytocin and autism spectrum disorder”by Donatella Marazziti and Federico Mucciand and Chapter 5 entitled “Autism: genetics or epigenetics?” by Alexander B. Poletaev and Boris A. Shenderov. These texts present the contemporary research finding in the field of the biological, genetically and prenatal critical development conditionals of autism. Also the background of autistic characteristics located in the imbalanced secretion of hormones and neurotransmitters is discussed. The biological fundament of attachment and social engagement is related to the level of oxytocin and either genetic or environmental variables might be responsible for the neurological damage. The authors discuss findings on oxytocin receptor genes in ASD familial studies and came to the conclusion that novel effective treatment for ASD patients should be concentrated on the reduction of pathophysiology abnormalities. This conclusion seems to be also adequate for improving the functioning of patients with differentiated mental diseases who suffer from social problems.
The second part relating to ReAttach therapy consists of three chapters.
Chapter 1 entitled “Indication of ReAttach within modalities of therapy: an improved ontology?” by Soren Petter seems to be the fundamental theme in the book. This introduces the theoretical background and rational of the therapeutic proposal, however it is paraphrasing the conclusion by Descartes. The core assumption stems from the fact that higher levels of cognitive processes are based on sensory processes which give core information about the self and the external world to construct the cognitive representations. This might be understood as the most critical and innovate part of the ReAttach approach however it seems not to be stressed strongly enough in the ReAttach description. Although this is not a comprehensive description or step-by-step guide to ReAttach therapy, the reader might be interested in decoding the sensory processes engaged in the ReAttach intervention. The basic elements of the treatment are concentrated on (1) Joint attention and connection, (2) Proactive arousal and partial affect regulation, (3) Optimal schema processing, threat activation and de-activation, (4) Cognitive bias modification and (5) Sensory and narrative differentiation and re-narrating.
The chapter ends with brief description of three case-studies of patients with Oppositional Conduct Disorder and Attention Deficit Disorder who receive ReAttach sessions each with good results. However the content of this treatment seems to be very complex and multidimensional and it might be considered as short-term therapy due to the fact that in general it takes only five sessions. Although short-term therapy, if concentrated on particular problem solving is often effective in highly motivated clients, the treatment effectiveness in the case of very complicated and comorbid mental problems seems to be doubtful.
Chapter 3 entitled “ReAttach Therapy: a new hope in the treatment of anxiety disorder” by Ashutosh Srivastava presents the treatment proposal for mental health problems related to anxiety as a primary symptom. According to DSM-5 there are anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorders, and trauma and stressor-related disorders. ReAttach Therapy gives an opportunity to deal with anxiety by working on the physiological, emotional as well as cognitive levels.
Anxiety is usually caused by failure anticipation and fear in response to current events. To reduce this negative emotion, ReAttach core mechanisms engaged in the process of anxiety reduction are based on the evidence that tapping with the appropriate level of pressure triggers the oxytocin secretion, which afterwards stimulates the safety feeling. The increase of tapping pressure might stimulate attention due to both cortisol and dopamine. In general ReAttach can regulate arousal, secretion of oxytocin and mimic safe attachments while creating joint attention as well as cognitive modification.
After a brief presentation of the theoretical background of the treatment which is related to arousal regulation, oxytocin balanced secretion and joint attention stimulation, multiple sensory stimulation and processing, conceptualization and cognitive bias modification, three case-studies are briefly described. Usually the effective therapy of anxiety disorders is based on Cognitive Behavioural Therapy with 15-20 sessions so the short-term therapy with ReAttach seems to be doubtful especially if the problems are very heavy and long-lasting (e.g.PTSD).
Chapter 4 entitled “Treatment of autism aspects and overlapping symptomatology from network perspective of clinical neuropsychiatry” by Paula Weerkamp-Bartholomeus presents the effectiveness of ReAttach treatment in two separate studies. One is related to ASD and the other one to differentiated symptomatology and risk behaviours. In the first study the preliminary diagnosis of ASD is based on the checklist filled by therapist who examines 12 developmental milestones before and after the treatment. The results of pre-test and post-test showed significant positive effects in all 12 areas of development in patients whose tested abilities were extremely low. These results are very optimistic however as there are some important methodological issues to be discussed before reaching the conclusion. Firstly, the tested group was strongly heterogenic in age, the age range was from 7 to 37 years and secondly the method of variable operationalisation is not clear. How does the self-reflection at the fourth point-level in the seven-year-old child with ASD compare to the 37-year-old adult? Similar questions should follow each developmental skill assessed.
The second study is based on the results of a self-report questionnaire for adults with mental problems (CSE-R) and a questionnaire for parents of children with mental health problems (KKL). The results of pre-test and post-test showed significant positive effects of ReAttach treatment however there few unclear methodological aspects again. Due to the fact that the tested group was extremely heterogenic (the age range from 7 to 74 years) the self-report assessment method for adults seems to be inadequate for children.
ReAttach is an integrative proposal for patients with mental health problems. It is made up from the following components: arousal regulation, tactile stimuli and joint attention, multiple sensory integration processing, conceptualization and cognitive bias modification. It might be supportive to foster multi-sensory-processing and reduce maladaptive schemas, through the sensory perceptions and tactile stimulation, sharing attention and perspective taking and cognitive processes modification. This new intervention proposal seems to stem from actual biological and psychological knowledge as well as to lead to positive outcomes and effects. However presented studies should be more precisely described and more research should be done to get final conclusions on evidence-based treatment. Due to the fact that mental health mechanisms are very complex and related to endless conditions and factors it should be taken into account that adequate diagnosis is the core element of appropriate therapy which should engaged evidence-based methods.

Key words: autism, reattach therapy, clinical neuropsychiatry, book review.

Citation:

Kossewska, J. Autism: is there a place for ReAttach therapy? A Book Review. Journal for ReAttach Therapy and Developmental Diversities. https://doi.org/10.26407/2018jrtdd.1.5

Copyright ©2018 Kossewska, J. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC 4.0)

Source: https://jrtdd.com/autism-is-there-a-place-for-reattach-therapy/

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Declaration of Rights and Principles to Transform Scholarly Communication

Declaration of Rights and Principles to Transform Scholarly Communication

  1. No copyright transfers.
  2. No restrictions on preprints.
  3. No waivers of OA Policy.
  4. No delays to sharing.
  5. No limitations on author reuse.
  6. No impediments to rights reversion.
  7. No curtailment of copyright exceptions.
  8. No barriers to data availability.
  9. No constraints on content mining.
  10. No closed metadata.
  11. No free labor.
  12. No long-term subscriptions.
  13. No permanent paywalls.
  14. No double payments.
  15. No hidden profits.
  16. No deals without OA offsets.
  17. No new paywalls for our work.
  18. No non-disclosure agreements.

Source: https://senate.universityofcalifornia.edu/_files/committees/ucolasc/scholcommprinciples-20180425.pdf

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AUTISM: THE PRE-CONCEPTUAL STATE OF MIND

Paula WEERKAMP-BARTHOLOMEUS
ReAttach Therapy International Foundation
Waalre, The Netherlands
E-mail: reattachfoundation@gmail.com
Received: 23-June-2018
Revised: 26-June-2018
Accepted: 27-June-2018
Online first 28-June-2018

Abstract

Introduction:

Autism Spectrum Disorders can be defined as a complex and heterogenous area of clinical characteristics. Adults diagnosed with ASD show a lot of comorbidity and overlapping symptomatology with other neuropsychiatric conditions that require specific approaches. The development of ReAttach supports adynamic special educational model for autism. Indicating the clinical characteristics of ASD as a reflection of the pre-conceptual stage, the ReAttach for autism protocol is characterized by activating the skills that are required for integration, conceptualisation, imagination and coping. ReAttach starts with external arousal regulation by the therapist to obtain optimal environmental conditions for learning. The term dynamic refers to the personal growth that individuals with ASD and patients with other neuropsychiatric conditions have shown. If core ASD symptomatology, such as lack of coherency, monotropic information processing and social communication problems, can be reduced by intervention it is time to embrace a dynamic model for autism.

Objective:

The objective is to propose a dynamic special education model for autism and to communicate how indicating the clinical characteristics of ASD as a reflection of the pre-conceptual stage sheds a different light on comparative research of ASD versus neurotypical groups.

Method:

The procedure of a comparative study of an autism and a neurotypical control group is reviewed from a dynamic special education model. The questions and remarks about the instructions and findings are displayed.

Results:

Reviewing the research procedure and findings from a dynamic special educational model sheds a different light on this comparative research of ASD versus neurotypical groups.

Key words: autism, pre-conceptual state of mind, special education.

Citation:

Weerkamp-Bartholomeus, P. Autism: The Pre-Conceptual State of Mind. Journal for ReAttach Therapy and Developmental Diversities. https://doi.org/10.26407/2018jrtdd.1.3

Copyright ©2018 Weerkamp-Bartholomeus, P. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC 4.0)

Corresponding address:
Paula WEERKAMP-BARTHOLOMEUS
ReAttach Therapy International Foundation
Frederik Hendrikstraat 13, 5583 CL Waalre, The Netherlands
Phone: 0031-624675619
E-mail: reattachfoundation@gmail.com

Full Text Article

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JRTDD in Eprints

Respected colleagues,

I have great honor to inform you that Journal for ReAttach Therapy and Developmental Diversities is included in digital repository of Eprints.

What is Eprints?

EPrints has been leading innovation in the Open Access movement over the past 15 years. EPrints provides a set of mature ingest, preservation, dissemination and reporting services for your institution’s OA needs.
Created in 2000 as a direct outcome of the 1999 Santa Fe meeting that decided on the OAI-PMH protocol, EPrints software provides stable, pragmatic infrastructure on which institutions the world over have been utilising to enable their Open Access agendas.
As Open Source Software, EPrints’ greatest asset is the community of developers, librarians and users that feed into its progress and keep EPrints the innovative platform that we are so proud of.
Source: http://www.eprints.org/
In this occasion I would like to thank to my collegues Prof. Dr. Boro Jakimovski and Prof. Dr. Dejan Gjorgjevikj from faculty of FINKI at University Ss. Cyril and Methodius. They gave us technical support for this platform. We hope that through this platform the jounral will be much more visible and indexed.
JRTDD Editor-in-chief
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WHO releases new International Classification of Diseases (ICD 11)

18 June 2018 ¦ Geneva: The World Health Organization (WHO) is today releasing its new International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11).
 The ICD is the foundation for identifying health trends and statistics worldwide, and contains around 55 000 unique codes for injuries, diseases and causes of death. It provides a common language that allows health professionals to share health information across the globe.
 “The ICD is a product that WHO is truly proud of,” says Dr Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus, WHO Director-General. “It enables us to understand so much about what makes people get sick and die, and to take action to prevent suffering and save lives.”
ICD-11, which has been over a decade in the making, provides significant improvements on previous versions. For the first time, it is completely electronic and has a much more user-friendly format. And there has been unprecedented involvement of health care workers who have joined collaborative meetings and submitted proposals. The ICD team in WHO headquarters has received over 10 000 proposals for revisions.
 ICD-11 will be presented at the World Health Assembly in May 2019 for adoption by Member States, and will come into effect on 1 January 2022. This release is an advance preview that will allow countries to plan how to use the new version, prepare translations, and train health professionals all over the country.
 The ICD is also used by health insurers whose reimbursements depend on ICD coding; national health programme managers; data collection specialists; and others who track progress in global health and determine the allocation of health resources.
The new ICD-11 also reflects progress in medicine and advances in scientific understanding. For example, the codes relating to antimicrobial resistance are more closely in line with the Global
Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System (GLASS). ICD-11 is also able to better capture data regarding safety in healthcare, which means that unnecessary events that may harm health – such as unsafe workflows in hospitals – can be identified and reduced.
 The new ICD also includes new chapters, one on traditional medicine: although millions of people use traditional medicine worldwide, it has never been classified in this system. Another new chapter on sexual health brings together conditions that were previously categorized in other ways (e.g. gender incongruence was listed under mental health conditions) or described differently. Gaming disorder has been added to the section on addictive disorders.
 “A key principle in this revision was to simplify the coding structure and electronic tooling – this will allow health care professionals to more easily and completely record conditions,” says Dr Robert Jakob, Team Leader, Classifications Terminologies and Standards, WHO.
 Dr Lubna Alansari, WHO’s Assistant Director-General for Health Metrics and Measurement, says: “ICD is a cornerstone of health information and ICD-11 will deliver an up-to-date view of the patterns of disease.”
 
Editors’ note:
ICD-11 is linked to the WHO non-proprietary names of pharmaceutical products, and it can be used for cancer registration. ICD-11 has been designed to be used in multiple languages: a central translation platform ensures that its features and outputs are available in all translated languages. Transition tables from and to ICD-10 support migration to ICD-11. WHO will support countries as they move towards implementation of the new ICD-11.

Source: http://www.who.int

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SEEING THE BIGGER RESEARCH PICTURE: THE BENEFITS OF ALTMETRICS DATA FOR AUTHORS

By: Amy Rees, Customer Support Manager at Altmetric

What and why: does article performance data matter?

With an uptick in the number of journals being published, journals can now use article performance data to provide added value for researchers to encourage them to publish with their organisation and reward the choice to have so done. This additional value can manifest in different ways, both in raw numbers such as downloads, or more nuanced data such as discussions of an article in policy documents.

Collating different types of article performance data allows authors to see rich data associated with their publications. Authors can be rewarded for their community outreach and engagement, seeing payoff for the fruits of their labour.

The article performance data also provides a wider picture of how the research is being received and presented online. This allows authors to consider the questions: How are mainstream sources presenting their research? How are laypersons reacting to the research? How are governmental and non-governmental organisations using the research in the “real world”?

One facet of article performance data is the collection and presentation of altmetrics. Altmetrics, or alternative metrics, describe non-traditional attention to scholarly outputs. Altmetrics as an idea covers a wide range of types of attention: news stories, shares and mentions on social media, references from government policy documents or patents, and much more.

Designed to be complementary to traditional bibliometrics (citations between articles, for example), altmetrics can provide a much more immediate, richer picture of who is engaging with a piece of research, and how it was received.

Recognising author engagement efforts

Providing altmetrics to authors, an approach which has become increasingly commonplace amongst academic publishers, can help not only encourage them to disseminate the results from their research, but also to see the positive effects of doing so. Outreach and engagement by an author is a key factor in increasing the type of attention paid to a publication or the quantity of engagement. As authors take the time to blog, engage with readers on Twitter, do interviews with news programs, and address comments on public peer review forums, they are creating a conversation about their work that is not without considerable effort.

Beyond viewing the impact in the context of journal performance, this type of dissemination also allows for audiences outside of academia to develop their understanding of key issues that impact society. The effort authors put into making their research available and easy to understand is not without benefit to the academic community, whose funders often rely on public donations or whose institutions may seek to raise their profile in a specific field.

Undertaking this kind of broader engagement, and tracking its outcomes, is also increasingly used by individual researchers looking to demonstrate the influence of their work to potential funders, hiring committees, or as part of national research performance reviews.

Staying on top of the story

News coverage, now more than ever and whether true or false, dominates the public understanding of research. Popular science is discussed in major newspapers and dissected in opinion pieces. One journal article can be discussed in multiple news outlets within a short period of time, even with conflicting stories or perspectives. New research published in Science “The spread of true and false news online” indicates that false news stories are shared at a much higher rate than those based in truth. This means that “getting ahead of the story” is critical to authors and the communications teams that support them to ensure their research is being properly positioned.

If an author doesn’t have access to this news data they might not see a misinterpretation of their research and miss the opportunity to respond or clarify. Further, they might also miss the opportunity to engage with an interested community.

The aggregation of news stories, a type of altmetrics, lets the author keep track of how their research is being positioned and then they can work with the media/marketing team of a publisher to correct any issues or highlight particular feedback.

Likewise, public peer review such as Publons, the source used by Altmetric, allows researchers to see the peer reviews of their publication in an open format. This open data allows users to have a chance to respond to relevant criticism within their own field. Concerns about results, data collection, and other aspects of research can be addressed via public discussions. This encourages inter-group conversations about research and allows more direct feedback about the publication.

Expand data available to authors

Collating altmetrics data can be challenging and time consuming for authors. While a simple search online could highlight some of the news stories about a publication it masks the effort necessary to find a complete picture. Some stories may be available but, a user is constrained by the search engine they are using and what they consider “important results”.

Taking the time to truly understand the attention and engagement associated with a publication can lead authors to arduous searching of multiple platforms and sources. By providing altmetrics, journals are pulling together a snapshot of the online attention available and bringing it into a single place, saving authors time and hassle.

Altmetrics are also a great way to highlight sources that might not be available to authors otherwise. While some sources, such as Twitter and news, could be available to users, other sources are harder to find or simply unavailable to authors.

Finding mentions of a publication in policy documents is often a particular challenge for authors. Not all policy sources or organisations make their publications available in an easy to read format, such as PDF or via Word Document. They can be buried in website archives in older formats or simply hard to locate.

Further, there lies a practical issue with extracting policy references. Where does an author even start? Most governments publish thousands of different policy documents per year and it can hard to know even where to start.

As with policy documents, finding references to journal articles in syllabi is nearly impossible for an individual academic. While authors may be aware of where their articles are used in their own institution or maybe in part of their sector there are many other institutions that may be using their research for teaching. This data could be invisible to researchers who may not even realise the use and breadth of their research.

Highlight readership and academic engagement

While engagement with laypersons is a valuable understanding of dissemination, authors are likely interested in which other authors and academics are reading and considering their publications. Readership data, such as that provided by Mendeley, shows who has saved a paper in their academic library to read or use in a future publication. They also provide geographic as well as discipline data for the readers that have saved the paper. Authors can then see where researchers are saving their publications and which discipline. Additionally, Mendeley readership has been correlated, in some fields, to long-term citations.

Services such as F1000 – Faculty of 1000 – allow users to see which academics have recommended their paper. This data allows users to see that academics have not just saved the paper that they have read it and deemed it of value. Though saving a paper does denote at least interest and future engagement these types of recommendations show a direct engagement with the paper and a public endorsement of its content.

Complementary data

Article performance data should be viewed as interlocking and complementary data, with altmetrics working together with more traditional sources such as downloads, views, and citations. While traditional citations take longer to accrue they represent an important part of the story for understanding the performance of an article.

As with any other article performance data, a high volume of citations does not necessarily mean agreement or quality. For example, the now since retracted paper regarding Autism and MWWR written by Andrew Wakefield et al has more than a thousand citations.

Similarly, download counts and views provide another type of article performance data for authors to have a sense of the immediate response to the paper. While a high number of downloads and views don’t necessary denote agreement, it does display engagement and attention to the publication.

Concluding

Providing altmetrics to authors is more than saying “You have X number of news stories and x number of Facebook posts”, though that can also be valuable attention itself. Altmetrics data allows journals to provide a more complete picture of the attention that has been paid to an author’s publication. From laypersons to science communicators to other academics and everyone in between, article performance data is a key source of valuable data for journals to provide to authors.

Article performance data is not only about addressing potential issues and positioning the research in the media, it is also about allowing authors to see the whole story. Providing a variety of different data allows authors to see areas, both disciplinary as well as geographic, that have shown interest in their publication and building connections to others who might be interested. In adding article performance data to the author package a journal is not only giving an author data, they are showing the value of a publication beyond its appearance in that journal.

Source: https://against-the-grain.com

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How to define authorship

The prevailing standard for defining authorship in scientific publishing comes from the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE). These standards are broadly applicable in journals across disciplines and are a great place to start when creating or iterating on your authorship policy. According to the ICMJE, an author is someone who meets all the following criteria:

  1. Substantial contributions to the conception or design of the work; or the acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data for the work
  2. Drafting the work or revising it critically for important intellectual content
  3. Final approval of the version to be published
  4. Agreement to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved

In short, each author should have made an important contribution that enabled the study to be completed, be aware of how the results were presented, and be willing to stand up for the final manuscript. Beyond your policy for inclusion, it is also best practice to indicate authorship practices that you consider unethical, such as

  • Guest/honorary authorship: inclusion of someone who did not contribute in order to capitalize on their name recognition or out of a sense of obligation
  • Ghost authorship: omission of a rightful author from the final list

To guide the corresponding author to carefully consider whether someone qualifies for authorship, consider asking him or her to indicate the contributions that each author has made to the paper. The recently defined CRediT taxonomy has been used by several journals as a way to clearly demonstrate each author’s role on a given paper.

Presenting the CRediT taxonomy criteria (or a version of them that is appropriate for your journal) front and center keeps your authors on the same page as you. Authorship is incredibly important to career advancement for researchers, so it is important for journals to take it seriously and apply fair and consistent standards to all published works.

Author order

In a handful of fields, authors are listed alphabetically. (These are the easy ones!) However, in many others, the order in which authors are listed has implications for the authors. The first author is generally considered to be the primary contributor, and the last author may be seen as providing general oversight and direction (as the head of the lab, for example). Authors in the middle have contributed sufficiently to be listed on the paper, but perhaps in more limited ways than the primary authors.

To prevent what can be a long, protracted dispute later, it is best to ensure that author order is correct when you first receive a manuscript. The ICMJE recommends getting confirmation from every author listed on the paper that they contributed to the work and agree with the order in which they appear on the author list. Even if this is not possible or practical, be sure to require the corresponding author to confirm that they have verified the final author order with all other authors.

Contributorship

Researchers, or anyone else who has contributed to a paper in a meaningful way, who fall short of the requirements for authorship should still be recognized for their work if possible. Often this takes the form of an “Acknowledgments” section. Although contributorship does not have the career implications that authorship does, it is still a public recognition of work that contributors will appreciate and can benefit from.

Some examples of contributorship include the following:

  • General oversight of a research group
  • Administrative or technical support
  • Writing and editing assistance
  • Assistance in conducting research or analyzing data, but without substantially affecting study design or interpretation (e.g., transcribing survey results)

Source: https://against-the-grain.com

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