THE HISTORY OF AUTISM IN THE FIRST HALF CENTURY OF THE 20TH CENTURY: NEW AND REVISED

Michael M. FITZGERALD
Department of Psychiatry, Trinity College, Dublin 2,
Ireland
E-mail:profmichaelfitzgerald@gmail.com
Received: 27-November-2018
Revised: 29-January-2019
Accepted: 31-January-2019
Online first 1-February-2019

Abstract

This paper examines the prehistory and history of autism in the first half of the 20th century. The prehistory focuses on Heller’s dementia Infantilis and Bleuler’s autism and schizophrenia. The more formal history begins with Tramer (1924), and continues with Ssucharewa (1926), which still contains some of the best descriptions of autism, although she called the condition schizoid psychopaths or schizoid personality disorders. There is still debate about when and whether Asperger and Kanner read Ssucharewa (1926), but the paper was republished in German in 1932 and quoted by Kanner, post his 1943 paper. The point is that Ssucharewa publication has precedents. George Frankl, the predecessor of Hans Asperger by many years, in the Heilpadogik Clinic was therefore a key figure in the description of autism in Vienna and later he went to America and worked under Leo Kanner, whom he described autism to.

Key words: Asperger syndrome, history, autism, origins

 

Citation: Fitzgerald, MM. The history of autism in the first half century of the 20th century: new and revised. Journal for ReAttach Therapy and Developmental Diversities. https://doi.org/10.26407/2018jrtdd.1.13

Copyright ©2018 Fitzgerald, MM. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC 4.0)

Corresponding address:
Michael M. FITZGERALD
Department of Psychiatry, Trinity College, Dublin 2,
D.15 G.P., Main Street, Blanchardstown, Dublin 15,
Ireland
E-mail: profmichaelfitzgerald@gmail.com

Full Text Article

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Call for abstracts 2nd Scientific ReAttach Conference

Call for abstracts

2nd Scientific ReAttach Conference
May 29/30 2020 / Skopje, Macedonia

 

Embracing Complexity Makes Sense!

We invite abstract submissions for oral and poster presentations at the 2nd Scientific ReAttach Conference / May 29-30, 2020 Skopje Macedonia. The event will be organized by ReAttach Therapy International Foundation and the Macedionian Scientific Society for Autism.

The general theme of the 2nd ReAttach Conference is “Embracing complexity“.
Autism will remain one of the main topics of the ReAttach Conference. A special focus lies on accessible and affordable interventions to support individuals with neurodevelopmental disorders.

Abstract submission should link with one of the conference topics:
1. ReAttach
2. Autism
3. Neurodevelopment
4. Clinical Psychiatry
5. Neuro-Rehabilitation
6. Special Education
7. Motor Imagery

Confirmed Keynote Speakers:

Prof. Michael Fitzgerald, Prof. Dr. Donatella Marazziti, Prof. Alexander B. Poletaev, Prof. Dr. Manuel Casanova, Prof. Dr. Mohammad Ghazziudin, Prof. Dr. Vladimir Trajkovski, Dr. Hanna Alonim, Dr. Ashutosh Srivasta, Drs. Paula Weerkamp-Bartholomeus

Conference website

Visit https://reattachconference.org for the latest information about this conference.  You can also find speakers guidelines and rules for abstract submission here.

 

Paula Weerkamp-Bartholomeus     Prof. Dr. Vladimir Trajkovski
ReAttach Foundation President             MSSA President
reattachfoundation@gmail.com           journaljrtdd@gmail.com

 

 

 

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HEALTH CONDITION IN PERSONS WITH AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDERS

Vladimir TRAJKOVSKI
Institute of Special Education and Rehabilitation,
Faculty of Philosophy, University “Ss. Cyril and Methodius,
1000 Skopje, Republic of Macedonia
E-mail: vladotra@fzf.ukim.edu.mk
Received: 20-October-2018
Revised: 23-December-2018
Accepted: 25-December-2018
Online first 29-December-2018

Abstract

Introduction: Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are behaviourally defined syndromes where the etiology and pathophysiology are not very well understood. If the child has been diagnosed with autism, parents already face special behavioural challenges. What makes ASD even more difficult, are the many other medical health issues that often arise in this population.
The purpose of this article is to summarise the latest understanding of autism’s commonly associated physical and mental health conditions.

Methods: An analysis of relevant literature, sources from the internet and published literature, personal experience and observations of the author.

Recent findings: Autism is a disorder of the whole body. It is often in co-morbidity with: epilepsy, gastrointestinal disorders, neuro-inflammation and immunological disorders, asthma, eczema, sleep disturbances, eating and feeding disorders, food allergies, attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), headaches, anxiety disorders, bipolar disorder, depression, schizophrenia, obsessive-compulsive disorder, Fragile X syndrome, intellectual disability, nonverbal learning disorder, motor clumsiness, Tourette syndrome, sensory problems, tuberous sclerosis, oxidative stress, acquired mitochondrial dysfunction and metabolic abnormalities. Many of the issues outlined here can overlap each other.

Conclusions:Improved understanding of the underlying pathology of ASD and associated conditions, and the development of a common purpose across multiple treating sites, can improve the consistent and coordinated healthcare of children with autism. There is need for the development of improved strategies for delivering effective health education and healthcare to this large population. Improving the ability of these persons to lead relatively independent lives has a great economic impact.

Key words: autism spectrum disorders, health, condition, medical disorders

Citation: Trajkovski, V. Health Condition in Persons with Autism Spectrum Disorders. Journal for ReAttach Therapy and Developmental Diversities. https://doi.org/10.26407/2018jrtdd.1.12

Copyright ©2018 Trajkovski, V. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC 4.0)

Corresponding address:
Vladimir TRAJKOVSKI
Institute of Special Education and Rehabilitation,
Faculty of Philosophy, University “Ss. Cyril and Methodius,
Blvd. Goce Delchev 9A, 1000 Skopje, Republic of Macedonia
E-mail: vladotra@fzf.ukim.edu.mk

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THE RELATION BETWEEN A DEVELOPMENTAL AND SOCIAL-EMOTIONAL SCREENING TEST USED IN PUBLIC CHILD DAYCARE CENTERS IN BRAZIL

Chieh-Yu CHEN1,
Luis ANUNCIAÇÃO2,
Jane SQUIRES3,
Alberto FILGUEIRAS4,
Jesus LANDEIRA-FERNANDEZ5

1National Taipei University of Education, Taiwan
2Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
3University of Oregon, United States
4Rio de Janeiro State University, Brazil
5Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro, BrazilNational Taipei University of Education,
No.134, Sec. 2, Heping E. Rd., Da-an District,
Taipei City 106, Taiwan.
E-mail: twohu2001@gmail.com
Received: 30-October-2018
Revised: 21-November-2018
Accepted: 27- November-2018
Online first: 28- November-2018

Abstract

Background: Two developmental screening instruments for infants and young children, the Ages & Stages Questionnaires-Third Edition (ASQ-3) and the Ages & Stages Questionnaires: Social-Emotional (ASQ:SE), are widely used in the US and internationally. Both tools are sometimes used concurrently but the relation between children’s scores on the two tools is seldom investigated.

Methods: The Brazilian versions of ASQ-3 and ASQ:SE, known as the ASQ-BR and ASQ:SE-BR, were used for assessing 13,470 children ages one to four in public child daycare centres in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Four groups were defined according to children’s ages as one, two, three, and four year-olds. Correlation and multiple regression were employed to explore the relation between children’s scores on the ASQ-BR and the ASQ:SE-BR.

Results: Results indicated that the domain scores of ASQ-BR, including communication (r = -0.38 to -0.44), gross motor (r = -0.19 to -0.32), fine motor (r = -0.33 to -0.45), problem solving (r = -0.36 to -0.42), and personal-social (r = -0.38 to -0.51) were significantly correlated with ASQ:SE-BR scores. Regression analyses suggested that the communication and personal-social domains were significant predictors of social-emotional scores in most of the age groups.

Conclusion: General developmental assessment is suggested to be conducted with social-emotional screening. If the workload is heavy for administers to use both screeners concurrently, social-emotional screening is recommended for children who fail communication or personal-social domains on developmental screening tests.

Key words: development, developmental screening, social-emotional competence

Citation: Chen, CY., Anunciação, L., Squires, J., Filgueiras, A., Landeira-Fernandez, J. The relation between a developmental and social-emotional screening test used in public child daycare centers in Brazil. Journal for ReAttach Therapy and Developmental Diversities. https://doi.org/10.26407/2018jrtdd.1.11

Copyright ©2018 Chen, CY., Anunciação, L., Squires, J., Filgueiras, A., Landeira-Fernandez, J. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC 4.0)

Corresponding address:
Chieh-Yu CHEN
National Taipei University of Education,
No.134, Sec. 2, Heping E. Rd., Da-an District,
Taipei City 106, Taiwan.
E-mail: twohu2001@gmail.com

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Merry Christmas

Dear  colleagues and friends ,

As we are coming to JRTDD first year’s end, we want to thank you all for your collaboration in supporting JRTDD vision. 2018 has been an important year for our agenda. The new year 2019 brings new and exciting challenges and opportunities. We hope that you will submit your papers in our journal. Also we expect to read, to share and to cite JRTDD papers.

We wish you and your families a joyful holiday season and a Happy New Year!

The JRTDD Editorial Team

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JRTDD into repository SocArXiv

Dear readers and colleagues,

I want to inform you that all JRTDD articles can be found in SocArXiv repository.

What is SocArXiv?

SocArXiv, open archive of the social sciences, provides a free, non-profit, open access platform for social scientists to upload working papers, preprints, and published papers, with the option to link data and code. SocArXiv is dedicated to opening up social science, to reach more people more effectively, to improve research, and build the future of scholarly communication.

JRTDD Editor-in-chief

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OpenCitations on JRTDD web site

Dear readers,

We created an link of  OpenCitations on JRTDD web site. 

OpenCitations is a scholarly infrastructure organization dedicated to open scholarship and the publication of open bibliographic and citation data by the use of Semantic Web (Linked Data) technologies, and engaged in advocacy for semantic publishing and open citations. It provides the OpenCitations Data Model and the SPAR (Semantic Publishing and Referencing) Ontologies for encoding scholarly bibliographic and citation data in RDF, and open software of generic applicability for searching, browsing and providing APIs over RDF triplestores. It has developed the OpenCitations Corpus (OCC) of open downloadable bibliographic and citation data recorded in RDF, and a system and resolution service for Open Citation Identifiers (OCIs), and it is currently developing a number of Open Citation Indexes using the data openly available in third-party bibliographic databases.

OpenCitations is currently working to expand and improve the supporting infrastructure of the OpenCitations Corpus (OCC), our open repository of scholarly citation data made available under a Creative Commons public domain dedication, which provides in RDF accurate citation information (bibliographic references) harvested from the scholarly literature. These are described using the SPAR Ontologiesaccording to the OpenCitations Data Model, and are made freely available so that others may freely build upon, enhance and reuse them for any purpose, without restriction under copyright or database law.

JRTDD Editor-in-chief

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JRTDD articles into XML files

Dear readers,

I want to announce that you can find #JRTDD articles into XML files which will increase the visibility and probably indexing of our journal.

What is XML?

XML is a file extension for an Extensible Markup Language (XML) file format used to create common information formats and share both the format and the data on the World Wide Web, intranets, and elsewhere using standard ASCII text.

XML is similar to HTML. Both XML and HTML contain markup symbols to describe the contents of a page or file. HTML, however, describes the content of a Web page (mainly text and graphic images) only in terms of how it is to be displayed and interacted with. For example, the letter “p” placed within markup tags starts a new paragraph.

XML describes the content in terms of what data is being described. For example, the word “phonenum” placed within markup tags could indicate that the data that followed was a phone number. An XML file can be processed purely as data by a program or it can be stored with similar data on another computer or it can be displayed, like an HTML file. For example, depending on how the application in the receiving computer wanted to handle the phone number, it could be stored, displayed, or dialed.

You can find articles from Vol.1, Issue 1 in XML here. I would like to say big gratitude to our web administrator @Gjorgji Pop Gjorgjiev for giving us this opportunity.

JRTDD Editor-in-chief

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XML in Science Publishing

XML and the Elsevier DTD family

Elsevier’s book and journal content is based on XML. XML stands for eXtensible Markup Language. XML documents are structured (“tagged”) independently of the presentation in a way that can be extended by the developer of the XML standard that is used.

Elsevier is basing its workflow for primary book and journal publications on the “XML-first” principle: all articles and books are converted to XML as they come in and this XML is used to prepare all output, irrespective of the format.

To define the XML it employs Elsevier is using DTDs; a DTD describes which elements may be used in tagging content and which rules apply to these elements. Elsevier has developed several related DTDs for, amongst others, scientific journal articles, book chapters and abstracted information. These DTDs are currently in version 5.5, and can be accessed via this site.

The DTDs describing the journal articles and book chapters only describe the highest level structure of the product, most of which is filled with “common” elements. These are stored in a “Common Element Pool” (CEP).

The Elsevier DTDs adopt several industry standards:

  • Unicode, the character set of XML
  • CALS tables, enhancing interoperability of tables in journal articles and existing tools
  • MathML, making mathematical formulae accessible to existing and newly developed tools for the publication and exchange of mathematical information
  • XLink, used to link to documents and resources on the web.

Using content on different platforms and in different guises

Not only is Elsevier operating by the “XML-first” principle for its current journal articles and books, all legacy content dating back to Elsevier’s origins as science publisher is also available in XML. From these XML sources, content is made available in various formats such as HTML, web and print PDF and ePub. XML-based full text content is published on a number of Elsevier web sites such as ScienceDirect and Clinical Key, but is also delivered to no-Elsevier platforms like PubMed Central. XML-derived content is being used on numerous abstracting and indexing services and databases, both Elsevier owned such as Scopus and Embase, but also outside platforms like PubMed.

Elsevier enriches its XML content by including relevant metadata; retrievability is improved by the attachment of taxonomy data. Moreover, all XML content can be made available for text and data mining.

Quality control: Documentation and validation

Developing a DTD alone is insufficient to allow an XML-based process; high-quality documentation helps in clarifying the interpretation of the tags and specifying the ways in which they are used. Elsevier has developed the so-called “Tag by Tag” format for its DTD documentation. The Tag by Tag documentation describes each element in the DTD family in detail in a uniform way.

Good documentation goes along with good validation, both to capture errors efficiently and consistently and to enforce quality requirements with business partners. Just parsing a document versus the DTD is insufficient to achieve the quality level required. Elsevier has developed its own quality checking application, a configurable rules-based tool allowing checking of many aspects that go beyond the validation by a parser. The rules file is in XML format. The tool is able to check not only XML files, but any tag-based file. In addition, it contains libraries to create tag-based files from non-tag-based files, such as PDF and artwork files.

Available DTDs and their documentation

All Elsevier XML DTDs, including older versions and together with accompanying documentation, are available on the Elsevier DTDs and transport schemas page.

Source: Elsevier 

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