THE HISTORY OF AUTISM IN THE FIRST HALF CENTURY OF THE 20TH CENTURY: NEW AND REVISED

Michael M. FITZGERALD
Department of Psychiatry, Trinity College, Dublin 2,
Ireland
E-mail:profmichaelfitzgerald@gmail.com
Received: 27-November-2018
Revised: 29-January-2019
Accepted: 31-January-2019
Online first 1-February-2019

Abstract

This paper examines the prehistory and history of autism in the first half of the 20th century. The prehistory focuses on Heller’s dementia Infantilis and Bleuler’s autism and schizophrenia. The more formal history begins with Tramer (1924), and continues with Ssucharewa (1926), which still contains some of the best descriptions of autism, although she called the condition schizoid psychopaths or schizoid personality disorders. There is still debate about when and whether Asperger and Kanner read Ssucharewa (1926), but the paper was republished in German in 1932 and quoted by Kanner, post his 1943 paper. The point is that Ssucharewa publication has precedents. George Frankl, the predecessor of Hans Asperger by many years, in the Heilpadogik Clinic was therefore a key figure in the description of autism in Vienna and later he went to America and worked under Leo Kanner, whom he described autism to.

Key words: Asperger syndrome, history, autism, origins

 

Citation: Fitzgerald, MM. The history of autism in the first half century of the 20th century: new and revised. Journal for ReAttach Therapy and Developmental Diversities. https://doi.org/10.26407/2018jrtdd.1.13

Copyright ©2018 Fitzgerald, MM. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC 4.0)

Corresponding address:
Michael M. FITZGERALD
Department of Psychiatry, Trinity College, Dublin 2,
D.15 G.P., Main Street, Blanchardstown, Dublin 15,
Ireland
E-mail: profmichaelfitzgerald@gmail.com

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AUTISM: THE PRE-CONCEPTUAL STATE OF MIND

Paula WEERKAMP-BARTHOLOMEUS
ReAttach Therapy International Foundation
Waalre, The Netherlands
E-mail: reattachfoundation@gmail.com
Received: 23-June-2018
Revised: 26-June-2018
Accepted: 27-June-2018
Online first 28-June-2018

Abstract

Introduction: Autism Spectrum Disorders can be defined as a complex and heterogenous area of clinical characteristics. Adults diagnosed with ASD show a lot of comorbidity and overlapping symptomatology with other neuropsychiatric conditions that require specific approaches. The development of ReAttach supports adynamic special educational model for autism. Indicating the clinical characteristics of ASD as a reflection of the pre-conceptual stage, the ReAttach for autism protocol is characterized by activating the skills that are required for integration, conceptualisation, imagination and coping. ReAttach starts with external arousal regulation by the therapist to obtain optimal environmental conditions for learning. The term dynamic refers to the personal growth that individuals with ASD and patients with other neuropsychiatric conditions have shown. If core ASD symptomatology, such as lack of coherency, monotropic information processing and social communication problems, can be reduced by intervention it is time to embrace a dynamic model for autism.

Objective: The objective is to propose a dynamic special education model for autism and to communicate how indicating the clinical characteristics of ASD as a reflection of the pre-conceptual stage sheds a different light on comparative research of ASD versus neurotypical groups.

Method: The procedure of a comparative study of an autism and a neurotypical control group is reviewed from a dynamic special education model. The questions and remarks about the instructions and findings are displayed.

Results: Reviewing the research procedure and findings from a dynamic special educational model sheds a different light on this comparative research of ASD versus neurotypical groups.

Key words: autism, pre-conceptual state of mind, special education.

Citation: Weerkamp – Bartholomeus, P. Autism: The Pre – Conceptual State of Mind. Journal for ReAttach Therapy and Developmental Diversities. 2018 Aug 15; 1(1):7-14. https://doi.org/10.26407/2018jrtdd.1.3

Copyright ©2018 Weerkamp-Bartholomeus, P. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC 4.0)

Corresponding address:
Paula WEERKAMP-BARTHOLOMEUS
ReAttach Therapy International Foundation
Frederik Hendrikstraat 13, 5583 CL Waalre, The Netherlands
Phone: 0031-624675619
E-mail: reattachfoundation@gmail.com

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