XML in Science Publishing

XML and the Elsevier DTD family

Elsevier’s book and journal content is based on XML. XML stands for eXtensible Markup Language. XML documents are structured (“tagged”) independently of the presentation in a way that can be extended by the developer of the XML standard that is used.

Elsevier is basing its workflow for primary book and journal publications on the “XML-first” principle: all articles and books are converted to XML as they come in and this XML is used to prepare all output, irrespective of the format.

To define the XML it employs Elsevier is using DTDs; a DTD describes which elements may be used in tagging content and which rules apply to these elements. Elsevier has developed several related DTDs for, amongst others, scientific journal articles, book chapters and abstracted information. These DTDs are currently in version 5.5, and can be accessed via this site.

The DTDs describing the journal articles and book chapters only describe the highest level structure of the product, most of which is filled with “common” elements. These are stored in a “Common Element Pool” (CEP).

The Elsevier DTDs adopt several industry standards:

  • Unicode, the character set of XML
  • CALS tables, enhancing interoperability of tables in journal articles and existing tools
  • MathML, making mathematical formulae accessible to existing and newly developed tools for the publication and exchange of mathematical information
  • XLink, used to link to documents and resources on the web.

Using content on different platforms and in different guises

Not only is Elsevier operating by the “XML-first” principle for its current journal articles and books, all legacy content dating back to Elsevier’s origins as science publisher is also available in XML. From these XML sources, content is made available in various formats such as HTML, web and print PDF and ePub. XML-based full text content is published on a number of Elsevier web sites such as ScienceDirect and Clinical Key, but is also delivered to no-Elsevier platforms like PubMed Central. XML-derived content is being used on numerous abstracting and indexing services and databases, both Elsevier owned such as Scopus and Embase, but also outside platforms like PubMed.

Elsevier enriches its XML content by including relevant metadata; retrievability is improved by the attachment of taxonomy data. Moreover, all XML content can be made available for text and data mining.

Quality control: Documentation and validation

Developing a DTD alone is insufficient to allow an XML-based process; high-quality documentation helps in clarifying the interpretation of the tags and specifying the ways in which they are used. Elsevier has developed the so-called “Tag by Tag” format for its DTD documentation. The Tag by Tag documentation describes each element in the DTD family in detail in a uniform way.

Good documentation goes along with good validation, both to capture errors efficiently and consistently and to enforce quality requirements with business partners. Just parsing a document versus the DTD is insufficient to achieve the quality level required. Elsevier has developed its own quality checking application, a configurable rules-based tool allowing checking of many aspects that go beyond the validation by a parser. The rules file is in XML format. The tool is able to check not only XML files, but any tag-based file. In addition, it contains libraries to create tag-based files from non-tag-based files, such as PDF and artwork files.

Available DTDs and their documentation

All Elsevier XML DTDs, including older versions and together with accompanying documentation, are available on the Elsevier DTDs and transport schemas page.

Source: Elsevier 


Open Access Week in the Netherlands

The International Open Access Week took place from 22 until 26 October. A range of events were held across the Netherlands, based on the theme ‘Designing Equitable Foundations for Open Knowledge’. The Netherlands Open Science Festival, for instance, was organised jointly by the university libraries, SURF, the National Open Science Platform and the PhD Network of the Netherlands (PNN). This festival for researchers centred on the question of how scientists can make their own research open. Participants shared experiences, new insights and practical tools.

In addition, Marjan Grootveld (DANS) gave two interactive webinars entitled ‘Q&A FAIR data and trusted repositories’ and ‘Openness, exchange, FAIR Data – oh brave new world that has such vision in’t!’. The presentations were a plea for FAIR research data, stored in reliable repositories. To conclude the Open Access Week, SURF, Fontys and TU Delft organised the seminar ‘Open Science meets Open Education’.

In addition to the various events held during the week, the VSNU also published a daily vlog featuring the major stakeholders involved in open access, such as Minister Ingrid van Engelshoven, chief negotiator Koen Becking and PNN chair Anne de Vries. Those vlog posts are available here.


Open access developments in the Netherlands

Open access: intermediate results in the Netherlands
In late 2013, State Secretary Dekker formulated objectives with regard to open access, which were then tightened in the National Open Science Plan at the start of 2017: ‘100% open access publishing by 2020’. How much progress have we made so far?

Experts from all universities have established a definition framework that can be used to determine the percentage of articles published open access and to distinguish between ‘gold’, ‘hybrid’ and ‘green’. Figures from 2017 reveal that 50% of the peer-reviewed articles from 14 Dutch universities are available open access (on a total of 55,713 articles). This was true of 42% of articles in 2016. At most universities, the highest percentage of open access articles was found in the category ‘Hybrid and not DOAJ OA’ (20% in 2016 and 23% in 2017).



Sushma RATHEE1, Ajay KUMAR2
1Department of Psychology, Mahrishi Dayanand
University, Rohtak, Haryana, India
2Department of Clinical Psychology, Dr. MV Govindaswamy
Building, Nimhans, Bengaluru, India
E-mail: ajaycog2010@gmail.com
Received: 22-August-2018
Revised: 30-September-2018
Accepted: 20-October-2018
Online first 22-October-2018


Background: Dissociative phenomena have been observed in clinical populations as an independent diagnostic category as well as in non-clinical populations. It has been observed that a person with dissociation has relatively more adverse stressful life experiences than healthy controls. Various studies indicated that stressful life events may have a causative role in dissociative disorders, however findings are inconsistent.

Objectives: To study this link the present study has been planned with the aim to assess and compare stressful life events and dissociative experience in patients with dissociative disorders and healthy controls.

Methods: The study comprises 80 participants (40 dissociative patients and 40 healthy controls). In the sample total, 16 males and 64 females were enrolled. All participants assessed using the Presumptive Stressful Life Events Scale and Multidimensional Inventory of Dissociation. Healthy controls were screened by the General Health Questionnaire-12.

Results: In the results of both groups have significant difference in the experience of life time psychological stress [t=2.92; p=0.05] and the correlation positively related with dissociative experiences and stressful life events. The finding from regression analysis indicates that the degree of life time stress emerged as a predictor of dissociative psychopathology treatment outcome (R2= 0.23, Beta coefficient = 0.48, p = 0.000, 95% Cl = 0.21- 0.50). This indicates that patients who had significantly higher psychological stress predicted dissociative psychopathology.

Conclusion: A significant difference was found between both groups in the Presumptive Stressful Life Events Scale, the clinical population has higher scores than the normal population and higher psychological stress predicted dissociative psychopathology.

Key words: Stressful life events, psychological stress, dissociative experience, dissociative phenomenology


Citation: Rathee, S., Kumar, A. Role of Psychological Stressors in Dissociative Phenomenology. Journal for ReAttach Therapy and Developmental Diversities. https://doi.org/10.26407/2018jrtdd.1.10

Copyright ©2018 Rathee, S., Kumar, A. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC 4.0)

Corresponding address:
Department of Clinical Psychology,
Dr. MV Govindaswamy Building, NIMHANS,
Bengaluru-560029, Karnataka, India.
E-mail: ajaycog2010@gmail.com

Full Text Article ahead of print 


Open Access Week 22-28 October 2018

Theme of 2018 International Open Access Week To Be “Designing Equitable Foundations for Open Knowledge”

The 2018 Open Access Week Advisory Committee is pleased to announce that the theme for the 2018 International Open Access Week, to be held October 22-28, will be “designing equitable foundations for open knowledge.”

This year’s theme reflects a scholarly system in transition. While governments, funders, universities, publishers, and scholars are increasingly adopting open policies and practices, how these are actually implemented is still in flux. As open becomes the default, all stakeholders must be intentional about designing these new, open systems to ensure that they are inclusive, equitable, and truly serve the needs of a diverse global community. This year’s Open Access Week invites all interested stakeholders to participate in advancing this important work.

Setting the default to open is an essential step toward making our system for producing and distributing knowledge more inclusive, but it also comes with new challenges to be addressed. How do we ensure sustainability models used for open access are not exclusionary? What are inequities that open systems can recreate or reinforce? Whose voices are prioritized? Who is excluded? How does what counts as scholarship perpetuate bias? What are areas where openness might not be appropriate?

These are not questions with easy answers. Rather, they are prompts for ongoing conversations that can help ensure that the foundation for a more equitable system of open research and scholarship is created thoughtfully and collaboratively. This year’s theme highlights the importance of asking the tough questions, staying critical, and actively engaging in an ongoing conversation to learn from diverse perspectives about how to make scholarship more equitable and inclusive as it becomes more open.

Established by SPARC and partners in the student community in 2008, International Open Access Week is an opportunity to take action in making openness the default for research—to raise the visibility of scholarship, accelerate research, and turn breakthroughs into better lives. This year’s Open Access Week will be held from October 22nd through the 28th; however, those celebrating the week are encouraged to schedule local events whenever is most suitable during the year and to utilize themes that are most effective locally.

The global, distributed nature of Open Access Week will play a particularly important role in this year’s theme. Strategies and structures for opening knowledge must be co-designed in and with the communities they serve—especially those that are often marginalized or excluded from these discussions altogether.

International Open Access Week is an important opportunity to catalyze new conversations, create connections across and between communities that can facilitate this co-design, and advance progress to build more equitable foundations for opening knowledge—discussion and action that must continue throughout the year, year in and year out. Diversity, equity, and inclusion must be prioritized year-round and integrated into the fabric of the open community, from how our infrastructure is built to how we organize community events.

For more information about International Open Access Week, please visit www.openaccessweek.org. You can follow the conversation on Twitter at #OAWeek.

Translations of this announcement are available in Chinese, Hindi, Portuguese, and Spanish. If you are interested in contributing a translation of the this year’s theme or the full announcement in another language, you can find instructions for doing so here.

Graphics for this year’s Open Access Week theme are available at http://www.openaccessweek.org/page/graphics


SPARC®, the Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition, is a global coalition committed to making Open the default for research and education. SPARC empowers people to solve big problems and make new discoveries through the adoption of policies and practices that advance Open Access, Open Data, and Open Education. Learn more at sparcopen.org.

About International Open Access Week
International Open Access Week is a global, community-driven week of action to open up access to research. The event is celebrated by individuals, institutions and organizations across the world, and its organization is led by a global advisory committee. The official hashtag of Open Access Week is #OAweek.



Univeristy of Maria Curie-Sklodowska in
Lublin, Poland
E-mail: mparchomiuk@o2.pl
Received: 06-September-2018
Revised: 30-September-2018
Accepted: 05-October-2018
Online first 06-October-2018


Introduction: Women with intellectual disability have a low level of competencies that would allow them to better manage their sexuality; consequently, they have a low level of control over their own health.

Objectives: The article describes the results of author’s own research into selected aspects of sexual health of women with intellectual disability (ID). The focus has been on issues such as menstruation, health and gynecological care, pharmacologization, contraception, STDs, and menopause.

Methods: The research was conducted with 11 women using structured interviews.

Results: Results suggest that these women have a low level of competencies to manage and control health problems in an optimal way. Their behavior is determined by people from their living environment to a large extent. Women with ID report various abnormalities in the course of developmental phenomena and in their own health, indicating potentially serious diseases and disorders.

Conclusion:Women with intellectual disability require lifelong support in meeting their health needs. Such support should be provided by institutions of care, health and social assistance.

Key words: sexual health, intellectual disability, gynecological care, contraception, STD

Citation: Parchomiuk, M. Sexual Health Issues in Women with Intellectual Disabilities Preliminary Analysis of the Problem. Journal for ReAttach Therapy and Developmental Diversities. https://doi.org/10.26407/2018jrtdd.1.9

Copyright ©2018 Parchomiuk, M. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC 4.0)

Corresponding address:
Faculty of Pedagogy and Psychology,
Univeristy of Maria Curie-Sklodowska in Lublin, Narutowicza
E-mail: mparchomiuk@o2.pl

Full Text Article ahead of print