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An Overview of the History and Methodological Aspects of Psychometrics – History and Methodological aspects of Psychometrics

Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
Institute of Psychology, Department of Psychometrics
Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Received: 15-June-2018
Revised: 1-July-2018
Accepted: 12-July-2018
Online first 15-July-2018


Introduction: The use of psychometric tools such as tests or inventories comes with an agreement and acceptance that psychological characteristics, such as abilities, attitudes or personality traits, can be represented numerically and manipulated according to mathematical principles. Psychometrics and its close relation with statistics provides the scientific foundations and the standards that guide the development and use of psychological instruments, some of which are tests or inventories. This field has its own historic foundations and its particular analytical specificities and, while some are widely used analytical methods among psychologists and educational researchers, the history of psychometrics is either widely unknown or only partially known by these researchers or other students.

Objectives: With that being said, this paper provides a succinct review of the history of psychometrics and its methods. From a theoretical approach, this study explores and describes the Classical Test Theory (CTT) and the Item Response Theory (IRT) frameworks and its models to deal with questions such as validity and reliability. Different aspects that gravitate around the field, in addition to recent developments are also discussed, including Goodness-of-Fit and Differential Item Functioning and Differential Test Functioning.

Conclusions:This theoretical article helps to enhance the body of knowledge on psychometrics, it is especially addressed to social and educational researchers, and also contributes to training these scientists. To a lesser degree, the present article serves as a brief tutorial on the topic.

Key words: Psychometrics, History, Classical Test Theory, Item Response Theory, Measurement.

Citation: Anunciação, L. An Overview of the History and Methodological Aspects of Psychometrics-History and Methodological aspects of Psychometrics. Journal for ReAttach Therapy and Developmental Diversities.

Copyright ©2018 Anunciação, L. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC 4.0)

Corresponding address:
Luis Anunciação
Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
Institute of Psychology, Department of Psychometrics
Rio de Janeiro – Brazil 22290-902

Full Text Article

American English vs. British English in Research Manuscripts: A Free Guide

In a simpler world, English would be written the same way everywhere. However, when Noah Webster set out to create an American English dictionary in the early 1800s, he did more than just add new words to British English: he also revised the spelling of many common words to eliminate what he saw as unnecessary letters. His new spellings were adopted in the US but not the UK, and these spelling differences remain to this day.

American English vs. British English - AJEThe list below is intended to provide an overview of the most common spelling differences between British and American English. The words beginning each list are intended to establish overall patterns, whereas the words in italicstowards the end of the lists are examples of deviations from the rule. Remember that you can choose between “English (U.S.)” and “English (U.K.)” in Microsoft Word when setting the language for your document. This change allows the spell check to help catch these differences in spelling.

Click here to download a list of American English and British English spelling differences for future reference.

-ize (-yze)/-ise

American British
characterize characterise
prioritize prioritise
specialize specialise
analyze analyse
catalyze catalyse
size size
exercise exercise
The products of the catalyzed reaction werecharacterized using specialized equipment. The products of the catalysed reaction werecharacterised using specialised equipment.


American British
behavior behaviour
color colour
favor favour
contour contour
Because of its decolorization behavior, this material is favored. Because of its decolourisation behaviour, this material is favoured.


American British
center centre
fiber fibre
liter litre
parameter parameter
Five milliliters of the mixture containing thefibers was pipetted on the center of the slide. Five millilitres of the mixture containing thefibres was pipetted on the centre of the slide.

e/(ae or oe)

American British
ameba amoeba
anesthesia anaesthesia
diarrhea diarrhoea
leukemia leukaemia
cesium caesium
The leukemia patient was given anesthesiabefore the procedure. The leukaemia patient was given anaesthesiabefore the procedure.


American British
defense defence
practice (noun and verb) practice (noun)/practise (verb)
license (noun and verb) licence (noun)/license (verb)
defensive defensive
advice (noun)/advise (verb) advice (noun)/advise (verb)
The defense attorney had practiced law for over thirty years. The defence attorney had practised law for over thirty years.

-/e, -og/-ogue

American British
aging ageing
acknowledgment acknowledgement
judgment judgement
analog analogue
dialog dialogue
dying/dyeing (from die/dye) dying/dyeing (from die/dye)
The aging analog-to-digital converter is slowly dying. The ageing analogue-to-digital converter is slowly dying.

-l/-ll OR -ll/-l

American British
fulfill fulfil
enroll enrol
skill, skillful skill, skilful
labeled labelled
signaling signalling
propelled propelled
revealing revealing
The skillful student noted that the drop inenrollment may be signaling a problem with the study design. The skilful student noted that the drop inenrolment may be signalling a problem with the study design.

This list of differences between American English and British English is by no means exhaustive, but we hope that it helps give you an idea of the distinctions between the two styles of writing. If you have questions about any particular word, please contact us.



British vs. American English: Spelling Differences in Academic Writing

Dear readers,

In Journal for ReAttach Therapy and Developmental Diversities we are using British English. So please adopt your articles to British English. Here are some spelling differences.

There are two main forms of written English – British and American – and most scholarly journals will indicate a preference or requirement for one or the other in their instructions for authors. Even if the guidelines of the journal to which you are hoping to submit your academic or scientific article does not specify whether you should use British or American English, you will be expected to use one form or the other consistently, and your spelling choices will need to be appropriate in every relevant instance. Unfortunately, many authors are not aware of the exact nature of the variations between British and American English, and while setting the default language in Microsoft Word to either British or American can help you catch and correct some misspelled words, it is far from foolproof. Most good English dictionaries will note spelling variations, but some dictionaries do not indicate in all cases whether the variants provided are determined by the differences between the two forms of English. Creating correct British or American English can therefore be challenging, and the following spelling notes may prove helpful as you polish your writing for publication.

• British English often uses ‘our’ (colour, behaviour) where American English uses only ‘or’ (color, behavior).
• British English tends to use ‘re’ at the end of words such as ‘centre’ and ‘metre,’ whereas American English uses ‘er’ (center, meter), but this is not always the case, with ‘parameter’ and ‘sober,’ for instance, correct in both forms of the language.
• British English can use either ‘ise’ or ‘ize’ in verbs that are always spelled with ‘ize’ in American English, so ‘organize’ and ‘specialize’ are correct in American English and can also be correct in British English, but British English can instead use ‘organise’ and ‘specialise.’
• British English uses ‘yse,’ as in ‘analyse’ and ‘paralyse,’ whereas American English uses ‘yze’ (analyze, paralyze).
• British English tends to use ‘ae,’‘oe’ and ‘ou’ in situations where American English uses only ‘e’ or ‘o,’ so ‘aesthetics,’ ‘manoeuvre’ and ‘mould’ are correct in British English, but the spelling would be ‘esthetics,’ ‘maneuver’ and ‘mold’ in American English, though these differences are not always observed.
• In British English ‘defence’ is spelled with a ‘c,’ but in American English the word is spelled with an ‘s’ (defense). The decision to use ‘c’ or ‘s’ can be tricky, however, with British English spelling the nouns ‘practice’ and ‘licence’ differently than the verbs ‘practise’ and ‘license,’ whereas American English uses ‘practice’ for both the noun and the verb and, conversely, ‘license’ for both the noun and the verb.
• British English will often retain an ‘e’ where American English will not, so ‘sizeable’ and ‘acknowledgement’ in British English are ‘sizable’ and ‘acknowledgment’ in American English, but this is not necessarily predictable: ‘judgement,’ for instance, is used in British English, except in legal contexts, in which case the correct form is ‘judgment,’ which is always the correct form in American English, and ‘knowledgeable’ retains its ‘e’ in both forms of the language.
• British English tends to use a single ‘l,’ as in ‘enrol’ and ‘skilful,’ whereas Amercian English uses double ‘ll’ in the same words (enroll, skillful).
• British English often doubles consonants when endings are added to words, as is the case with ‘focussed’ and ‘travelling,’ while American English does not (focused, traveling), but there are exceptions, with ‘enrolling’ the correct form in both.
• British English occasionally uses ‘ph’ (sulphur) where American English uses ‘f’ (sulfur), ‘sc’ (sceptic) where American English uses ‘sk’ (skeptic), ‘que’ (cheque) where American English uses ‘ck’ (check) and ‘ogue’ (catalogue) where American English uses only ‘og’ (catalog), though the two forms of the language do not always differ in the last of these ways, with ‘epilogue,’ for instance, the same in both.
• In some cases British English uses ‘mme’ (programme) where American English uses an ‘m’ alone (program), but this varies, and when ‘program’ applies to computer software, ‘mme’ is never used.

Why our Journal Article Editing and Proofreading Services?
Our dedicated team of journal editors and proofreaders will give you more confidence in the work that you submit after benefiting from our journal proofreading and editing services. The author instructions provided by academic and scientific journals must be followed with precision when preparing a scholarly article for publication or the paper may be rejected without serious consideration of its content; the same problem can arise if an article written in the English language contains too may grammar, spelling and punctuation errors. Our academic and scientific journal editors and proofreaders can help you to ensure that this does not happen to your articles by resolving any problems with your language, adjusting your formatting and references to conform consistently to journal requirements and correcting simple typing errors. Learn more about ourjournal article proofreading and editing services for researchers across all academic and scientific journals. provides wide-ranging proofreading and editing services for the authors of academic, scientific and professional documents. Our academic and scientific proofreaders and editors are highly educated in many different subject areas and carefully trained to work on documents of all kinds, so whatever sort of document you are writing, we have the experience and expertise to help you improve its grammar, spelling, punctuation, references and formatting until they are polished to perfection. Examples of the many kinds of academic and scientific documents we frequently proofread and edit are listed below, but if the sort of document you are currently writing is not mentioned here, please contact us, as we are sure to have an expert proofreader ready to assist you.


JRTDD editor-in-chief

How to write rejection letter for journal article (Example 2)

Dear colleague (name)
Expert reviewers in the field have evaluated your manuscript with ID 07218
(title article)
and I regret to inform you that, based on their comments, it will not be possible to further consider your manuscript for publication in Journal for ReAttach Therapy and Developmental Diversities.
Although the reviews are not entirely negative, it is evident from the extensive comments and concerns that the manuscript, at least in its current form, does not meet the criteria for novelty
and impact expected of papers in Journal for ReAttach Therapy and Developmental Diversities.
The results appear to be too preliminary and incomplete for publication at the present time.
The comments of the reviewers are enclosed for your consideration. I hope the information provided by the reviewers will be helpful in future studies.
The volume of manuscripts submitted to Journal for ReAttach Therapy and Developmental Diversities has been growing steadily, raising publication standards to new levels of selectivity. This policy, though not always convenient to potential contributors, will help ensure that Journal for ReAttach Therapy and Developmental Diversities maintains a position of leadership in the field.
Again, thank you for your interest in the journal, and I regret that the outcome could not have been more favorable in this case.

JRTDD Editor-in-chief

How to write rejection letter for journal article (Example 1)

Dear colleague (name),

We received your manuscript with ID 06118: (title of the article),
and I regret to inform you that, based on plagiarism iThenticate program yours article showed 58% similarity with other papers. Due to a possible plagiarism we will not be possible to further consider your manuscript for publication in Journal for ReAttach Therapy and Developmental Diversities. 

This policy, though not always convenient to potential contributors, will help ensure that Journal for ReAttach Therapy and Developmental Diversities maintains a position of leadership in the field.
Again, thank you for your interest in the journal, and I regret that the outcome could not have been more favorable in this case.
JRTDD Editor-in-chief


Department of Psychology
Pedagogical University of Crakow,
Crakow, Poland
Received: 08-July-2018
Revised: 09-July-2018
Accepted: 09-July-2018
Online first 10-July-2018


Review of the book Autism: is there a place for ReAttach therapy? edited by Paula Weerkamp-Bartholomeus.
The book Autism: is there a place for ReAttach therapy? edited by Paula Weerkamp-Bartholomeus is new monograph in the field of psychotherapy and support for patients with mental health problems. The content of the book has contributions by international professionals working in the field of clinical psychology, psychiatry, immunology as well as genetics. It is organised into a preface and five separate chapters, which are briefly analysed below, presenting a differentiated but coherent perspective of the ReAttach approach proposal.
The Preface and Epilogue by Michael Fitzgerald are two sections that bind the contents together. The beginning entitled “Sentimus ergo sumus: we sense therefore we are. ReAttach”, points out the core assumptions of ReAttach which are as following: the ortho-paedagogical background, the integrated therapeutic perspective (sensory perception, emotion and cognition) and a dimensional rather than categorical approach. This means that separate psychiatric diagnoses is not so important, due to the fact that mental health problems are comorbid. The ending gives the readers the future perspective and sums up the ReAttach results.
The contents of the book might be divided into two sections. The first is strictly related to biological aspects of autism and the second is dedicated to the ReAttach treatment analysis.
Autism is the core topic of two chapters: Chapter 2 entitled “Oxytocin and autism spectrum disorder”by Donatella Marazziti and Federico Mucciand and Chapter 5 entitled “Autism: genetics or epigenetics?” by Alexander B. Poletaev and Boris A. Shenderov. These texts present the contemporary research finding in the field of the biological, genetically and prenatal critical development conditionals of autism. Also the background of autistic characteristics located in the imbalanced secretion of hormones and neurotransmitters is discussed. The biological fundament of attachment and social engagement is related to the level of oxytocin and either genetic or environmental variables might be responsible for the neurological damage. The authors discuss findings on oxytocin receptor genes in ASD familial studies and came to the conclusion that novel effective treatment for ASD patients should be concentrated on the reduction of pathophysiology abnormalities. This conclusion seems to be also adequate for improving the functioning of patients with differentiated mental diseases who suffer from social problems.
The second part relating to ReAttach therapy consists of three chapters.
Chapter 1 entitled “Indication of ReAttach within modalities of therapy: an improved ontology?” by Soren Petter seems to be the fundamental theme in the book. This introduces the theoretical background and rational of the therapeutic proposal, however it is paraphrasing the conclusion by Descartes. The core assumption stems from the fact that higher levels of cognitive processes are based on sensory processes which give core information about the self and the external world to construct the cognitive representations. This might be understood as the most critical and innovate part of the ReAttach approach however it seems not to be stressed strongly enough in the ReAttach description. Although this is not a comprehensive description or step-by-step guide to ReAttach therapy, the reader might be interested in decoding the sensory processes engaged in the ReAttach intervention. The basic elements of the treatment are concentrated on (1) Joint attention and connection, (2) Proactive arousal and partial affect regulation, (3) Optimal schema processing, threat activation and de-activation, (4) Cognitive bias modification and (5) Sensory and narrative differentiation and re-narrating.
The chapter ends with brief description of three case-studies of patients with Oppositional Conduct Disorder and Attention Deficit Disorder who receive ReAttach sessions each with good results. However the content of this treatment seems to be very complex and multidimensional and it might be considered as short-term therapy due to the fact that in general it takes only five sessions. Although short-term therapy, if concentrated on particular problem solving is often effective in highly motivated clients, the treatment effectiveness in the case of very complicated and comorbid mental problems seems to be doubtful.
Chapter 3 entitled “ReAttach Therapy: a new hope in the treatment of anxiety disorder” by Ashutosh Srivastava presents the treatment proposal for mental health problems related to anxiety as a primary symptom. According to DSM-5 there are anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorders, and trauma and stressor-related disorders. ReAttach Therapy gives an opportunity to deal with anxiety by working on the physiological, emotional as well as cognitive levels.
Anxiety is usually caused by failure anticipation and fear in response to current events. To reduce this negative emotion, ReAttach core mechanisms engaged in the process of anxiety reduction are based on the evidence that tapping with the appropriate level of pressure triggers the oxytocin secretion, which afterwards stimulates the safety feeling. The increase of tapping pressure might stimulate attention due to both cortisol and dopamine. In general ReAttach can regulate arousal, secretion of oxytocin and mimic safe attachments while creating joint attention as well as cognitive modification.
After a brief presentation of the theoretical background of the treatment which is related to arousal regulation, oxytocin balanced secretion and joint attention stimulation, multiple sensory stimulation and processing, conceptualization and cognitive bias modification, three case-studies are briefly described. Usually the effective therapy of anxiety disorders is based on Cognitive Behavioural Therapy with 15-20 sessions so the short-term therapy with ReAttach seems to be doubtful especially if the problems are very heavy and long-lasting (e.g.PTSD).
Chapter 4 entitled “Treatment of autism aspects and overlapping symptomatology from network perspective of clinical neuropsychiatry” by Paula Weerkamp-Bartholomeus presents the effectiveness of ReAttach treatment in two separate studies. One is related to ASD and the other one to differentiated symptomatology and risk behaviours. In the first study the preliminary diagnosis of ASD is based on the checklist filled by therapist who examines 12 developmental milestones before and after the treatment. The results of pre-test and post-test showed significant positive effects in all 12 areas of development in patients whose tested abilities were extremely low. These results are very optimistic however as there are some important methodological issues to be discussed before reaching the conclusion. Firstly, the tested group was strongly heterogenic in age, the age range was from 7 to 37 years and secondly the method of variable operationalisation is not clear. How does the self-reflection at the fourth point-level in the seven-year-old child with ASD compare to the 37-year-old adult? Similar questions should follow each developmental skill assessed.
The second study is based on the results of a self-report questionnaire for adults with mental problems (CSE-R) and a questionnaire for parents of children with mental health problems (KKL). The results of pre-test and post-test showed significant positive effects of ReAttach treatment however there few unclear methodological aspects again. Due to the fact that the tested group was extremely heterogenic (the age range from 7 to 74 years) the self-report assessment method for adults seems to be inadequate for children.
ReAttach is an integrative proposal for patients with mental health problems. It is made up from the following components: arousal regulation, tactile stimuli and joint attention, multiple sensory integration processing, conceptualization and cognitive bias modification. It might be supportive to foster multi-sensory-processing and reduce maladaptive schemas, through the sensory perceptions and tactile stimulation, sharing attention and perspective taking and cognitive processes modification. This new intervention proposal seems to stem from actual biological and psychological knowledge as well as to lead to positive outcomes and effects. However presented studies should be more precisely described and more research should be done to get final conclusions on evidence-based treatment. Due to the fact that mental health mechanisms are very complex and related to endless conditions and factors it should be taken into account that adequate diagnosis is the core element of appropriate therapy which should engaged evidence-based methods.

Key words: autism, reattach therapy, clinical neuropsychiatry, book review.


Kossewska, J. Autism: is there a place for ReAttach therapy? A Book Review. Journal for ReAttach Therapy and Developmental Diversities.

Copyright ©2018 Kossewska, J. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC 4.0)