ROLE OF PSYCHOLOGICAL STRESSORS IN DISSOCIATIVE PHENOMENOLOGY

Sushma RATHEE1, Ajay KUMAR2
1Department of Psychology, Mahrishi Dayanand
University, Rohtak, Haryana, India
2Department of Clinical Psychology, Dr. MV Govindaswamy
Building, Nimhans, Bengaluru, India
E-mail: ajaycog2010@gmail.com
Received: 22-August-2018
Revised: 30-September-2018
Accepted: 20-October-2018
Online first 22-October-2018

Abstract

Background: Dissociative phenomena have been observed in clinical populations as an independent diagnostic category as well as in non-clinical populations. It has been observed that a person with dissociation has relatively more adverse stressful life experiences than healthy controls. Various studies indicated that stressful life events may have a causative role in dissociative disorders, however findings are inconsistent.

Objectives: To study this link the present study has been planned with the aim to assess and compare stressful life events and dissociative experience in patients with dissociative disorders and healthy controls.

Methods: The study comprises 80 participants (40 dissociative patients and 40 healthy controls). In the sample total, 16 males and 64 females were enrolled. All participants assessed using the Presumptive Stressful Life Events Scale and Multidimensional Inventory of Dissociation. Healthy controls were screened by the General Health Questionnaire-12.

Results: In the results of both groups have significant difference in the experience of life time psychological stress [t=2.92; p=0.05] and the correlation positively related with dissociative experiences and stressful life events. The finding from regression analysis indicates that the degree of life time stress emerged as a predictor of dissociative psychopathology treatment outcome (R2= 0.23, Beta coefficient = 0.48, p = 0.000, 95% Cl = 0.21- 0.50). This indicates that patients who had significantly higher psychological stress predicted dissociative psychopathology.

Conclusion: A significant difference was found between both groups in the Presumptive Stressful Life Events Scale, the clinical population has higher scores than the normal population and higher psychological stress predicted dissociative psychopathology.

Key words: Stressful life events, psychological stress, dissociative experience, dissociative phenomenology

 

Citation: Rathee, S., Kumar, A. Role of Psychological Stressors in Dissociative Phenomenology. Journal for ReAttach Therapy and Developmental Diversities. https://doi.org/10.26407/2018jrtdd.1.10

Copyright ©2018 Rathee, S., Kumar, A. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC 4.0)

Corresponding address:
Ajay KUMAR
Department of Clinical Psychology,
Dr. MV Govindaswamy Building, NIMHANS,
Bengaluru-560029, Karnataka, India.
E-mail: ajaycog2010@gmail.com

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An Overview of the History and Methodological Aspects of Psychometrics – History and Methodological aspects of Psychometrics

Luis ANUNCIAÇÃO
Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
Institute of Psychology, Department of Psychometrics
Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
E-mail:luisfca@gmail.com
Received: 15-June-2018
Revised: 1-July-2018
Accepted: 12-July-2018
Online first 15-July-2018

Abstract

Introduction: The use of psychometric tools such as tests or inventories comes with an agreement and acceptance that psychological characteristics, such as abilities, attitudes or personality traits, can be represented numerically and manipulated according to mathematical principles. Psychometrics and its close relation with statistics provides the scientific foundations and the standards that guide the development and use of psychological instruments, some of which are tests or inventories. This field has its own historic foundations and its particular analytical specificities and, while some are widely used analytical methods among psychologists and educational researchers, the history of psychometrics is either widely unknown or only partially known by these researchers or other students.

Objectives: With that being said, this paper provides a succinct review of the history of psychometrics and its methods. From a theoretical approach, this study explores and describes the Classical Test Theory (CTT) and the Item Response Theory (IRT) frameworks and its models to deal with questions such as validity and reliability. Different aspects that gravitate around the field, in addition to recent developments are also discussed, including Goodness-of-Fit and Differential Item Functioning and Differential Test Functioning.

Conclusions:This theoretical article helps to enhance the body of knowledge on psychometrics, it is especially addressed to social and educational researchers, and also contributes to training these scientists. To a lesser degree, the present article serves as a brief tutorial on the topic.

Key words: Psychometrics, History, Classical Test Theory, Item Response Theory, Measurement.

Citation: Anunciação, L. An Overview of the History and Methodological Aspects of Psychometrics-History and Methodological aspects of Psychometrics. Journal for ReAttach Therapy and Developmental Diversities.https://doi.org/10.26407/2018jrtdd.1.6

Copyright ©2018 Anunciação, L. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC 4.0)

Corresponding address:
Luis Anunciação
Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
Institute of Psychology, Department of Psychometrics
Rio de Janeiro – Brazil 22290-902
E-mail: luisfca@gmail.com

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